Tribals, Dikus, and the vision of a Golden Age TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions And Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-4

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Tribals, Dikus, and the vision of a Golden Age TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions And Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-4

Text book solutions.

1 . Fill in the blanks:-

a . The British described the tribal people as ____________.

Ans: wild and Savage.

b . The method of sowing seed in jhum cultivation is known as _________.

Ans: broadcasting.

c . The tribal chiefs got _______ titles in central India under the British land settlements.

Ans: land.

d . Tribals went to work in the ____________ of Assam and __________ in Bihar.

Ans: tea plantations , coal mines.

2 . State whether true or false:-

a . Jhum cultivators plough the land and sow seeds.

Ans: false.

b . Cocoons were bought from the santhals and sold by the traders at five times the purchase price.

Ans: true.

c . Birsa urged his followers to purify themselves, give up drinking liquor and stop believing in witchcraft and sorcery.

Ans: true.

d . The British wanted to preserve the tribal way of life.

Ans: false.

YOU ARE READING: Tribals, Dikus, and the vision of a Golden Age TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions And Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-4

3.  What were the problems did shifting cultivators face under the British rule?

Ans: Shifting cultivation was also known as the “jhum cultivation” practiced by the tribals in small patches of forest. In this process of cultivation, the cultivators are used to cut the top of the tree so that enough sunlight reaches the ground level where the crop is to be cultivated. They used to burn the pre-existing vegetation for cultivating their crops and spread the ash which would fertilize the soil as it was rich in potash. They used to spread the seeds on the field which is known as broadcasting. After the crop was harvested, they shifted to another area for repeating the same process. They were mainly found in northeast and central India.

But soon after the British rule the shifting cultivators started facing problems. Some of them are as follows:-

  •  The British did not support the shifting cultivators as they moved from one place to another. They wanted those cultivators to have a fixed place for cultivation and become peasant cultivators.
  •  As they were the moving cultivators the British government faced problems in controlling them. So, they wanted them to settle down.
  • The British created forest laws against the shifting cultivators as they were not getting fixed land revenue. Those forest laws created problems for the cultivators.
  • Settled cultivation was not always easy. There were areas where water was scarce and soil was dry. Plowing and cultivation in those lands were not easy for the jhum cultivators as the crop production was of poor quality.

Facing these problems, most of the shifting cultivators continued their own traditional practices of cultivation and protested against the British rules.

4 . How did the power of tribal chiefs change under colonial rule?

Ans: The life of the tribal chiefs changed a lot after the arrival of British government in India.

Before the British arrived, the tribal chiefs were respected as a ruler and they were considered as the most important person. They had the right to create rules and laws and could control their areas. They also had the power of interfering with the economy of the area. In some areas, they had their own police forces and had the power to decide rules and regulations regarding the forest system.

But soon after the arrival of the British government, they lost all their independence and powers. They had no independence on their land and couldn’t make any decisions without the permission of the British government.  They were forced to keep their lands on re t and collect revenue from the cultivators which were to be paid to the government. Moreover, they had to follow the laws set up by the British government. After the arrival of the British, they couldn’t enjoy the powers which they had enjoyed before and they lost their importance among the people. They were given the responsibility to make the tribal group behave in a disciplined manner in front of the British. So, after the arrival of the British government, the life of tribal chiefs changed from a ruler to a “puppet” or slave of the government.

YOU ARE READING: Tribals, Dikus, and the vision of a Golden Age TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions And Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-4

5 . What accounts for the anger of the tribals against the dikus?

Ans: Dikus were referred to the outsiders that are the British government, moneylenders, landlords, tax collectors. Before the arrival of the Dikus, the tribals led a very independent life. They had the right to cultivate in any land they wished to. There were no rules or regulations. The tribal chiefs were considered as the head. But soon after the arrival of the Dikus, their lifestyle changed. The tribals considered them as a source of discomfort and stress. They started to interfere with their lifestyle.

The reasons of their anger on the Dikus are as follows:-

  •  After the arrival of the British government, the shifting cultivators were ordered to settle down as fixed peasants, which created massive problems as the quality of all the lands were not the same. In places where the water supply was poor, the lands became dry and the crop production was not high.
  • The tribal chiefs did not have any right on their own land. He was forced to give away his lands on rent. They also lost the power of making any rules or regulations. This had hurt the emotions and sentiments of the tribal chiefs.
  • The tribals had to pay the high land revenue asked by the British government to continue cultivation.
  • The Dikus started interfering in their traditional practices and tried to change them.
  • The forest policies set up by the British government were a great cause  of  loss for the  tribals.

These made the tribal furious which led to a number of protest movement against to the Dikus.

6 . What was Birsa’s vision of a golden age?  Why do you think such a vision appealed to the people of the region?

Ans:  Birsa, as an adolescent heard many stories of the past and he also saw the leaders start many revolts. They also said people about the golden age when the Mundas led an independent life and did not suffer any stress because of the dikus. Birsa also went to the missionary schools and came across the fact that the Mundas could achieve the “Kingdom of Heaven” and all other rights which they have lost. This could be achieved only if the Mundas would prohibit all the” bad practices”.

Birsa was highly influenced by these ideas. He requested his followers to give up all the bad habits like drinking liquors and believing in witchcraft and sorcery. He reminded people about their glorious past where they led an independent life surrounded by natural springs, they planted trees and orchards. They led a very peaceful life. Birsa also wanted to bring back those golden days.

Such a vision appealed to the people as they also wanted to live the life which they had led before the arrival of British colonial rule. They were frustrated about the fact that they did not have any right on their own land. And they were not allowed to cultivate freely and they were also not allowed to follow their traditional practices. They were very fed up with the restrictions set up by the British government and so they were very anxious about leading a free life.

YOU ARE READING: Tribals, Dikus, and the vision of a Golden Age TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions And Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-4

7 . Find out from your parents, friends or teachers the names of some heroes of other tribal revolts in the twentieth century. Write their story in your own words.

Ans: In twentieth century there were many heroes of the tribal group who led many revolts for the freedom struggle. Few of them are:-

  • Gunda Dhur in 1910 started the Bastar rebellion.
  • Tana Bhagat movement was started in Bihar during 1913-1914.
  •  Under the leadership of Alluri Sitarama Raju, the Koya tribal community revolted at Rampa in 1922.
  • In 1922, under the leadership of Rani Gaidinliu, the Nagas started a revolt in North-Eastern India.
  • Under the leadership of Lakshmana Naik tribal revolt was started at Orissa in 1942.

Gunda Dhur.

In 1910, under the leadership of Gunda Dhur, the Bastar rebellion took place in Bastar district, Chhattisgarh state. This rebellion was a protest against the British government as they had set up new regulations in the forest management system which were destroying the traditional practices of the tribals. Gunda Dhur influenced the people to protest and fight against British laws and regulations.

Jatra Oraon

Jatra Oraon was a tribal freedom fighter from Chottanagpur. Under his leadership, the Oraon movement was started against the British from 1914 to 1919. He was against all the superstitious practices. His movement also gave direction to the “no-rent” campaign. He influenced his followers to stop working as laborers, farmers, coolies under their landlords. His motive was to spread the slogan that “land was a gift of God” and the tribals should get back their freedom on the lands. Later on, Jatra was arrested and after his release, he joined the “ Non-cooperation Movement” with Gandhiji.

Rani Gaidinliu.

Rani Gaidinliu was born in Manipur and under her leadership, the Nagas revolted against the British. She joined the freedom struggle with Hasipau Jodonang. Their main motive was to throw away the British out of Manipur. But Jodonang was arrested and hanged by the British and Gaidinliu became the leader and continued the struggle for freedom. She was arrested in 1932 and was released after independence. She was given the Padma Bhushan award and was designated as “Rani” by Jawaharlal Nehru.     

YOU ARE READING: Tribals, Dikus, and the vision of a Golden Age TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions And Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-4

8 . Choose any tribal group living in India today . Find out about their customs and way of life and how their lives have changed in last 50 years.

Ans:  There are many tribal groups still found in India few of them are as follows:-

  • The Great Andamanese tribe. ( Andaman and Nicobar islands).
  • The Orange tribe. ( Andaman and Nicobar islands).
  • The Kamar tribe ( Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh).
  • The Birhor tribe( Bihar, Jharkhand ).

However, the life of tribals has developed a lot in the last 50 years. In the past, as tribals were directly connected to the forest they were exploited by the traders and moneylenders. They were made laborers, farmers and led a very hard life. They did not have many health care facilities and were considered a backward section of the society.

But nowadays the conditions of the tribals have completely changed. The tribal community became developed and educated. They are provided with a lot of support by the government in the fields of healthcare services, education, and job facilities. They are given equal rights. Almost in all the government schools and colleges, 20-30percent of seats are kept reserved for the tribes. The tribals became more creative in the passing time. Hence, the tribals are trying to develop and modernize themselves.