COLONIALISM AND THE CITY TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-6

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COLONIALISM AND THE CITY TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-6

Text book solutions.

1 . State whether true or false:-

a . In the Western world modern cities grew with industrialization.

Ans: true.

b . Surat and Machlipatnam developed in the nineteenth century.

Ans: false.

c . In the twentieth century majority of the people lived in cities.

Ans: false.

d . After 1857 no worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years.

Ans: true .

e . More money was spent on cleaning old Delhi than New Delhi.

Ans: false.

YOU ARE READING: COLONIALISM AND THE CITY TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-6

2 . Fill in the blanks:-

a . The first structure to successfully use the dome was called the ____________.

Ans: central dome.

b . The two architects who designed New Delhi and Shahjahanabad were ___________ and __________.

Ans: Edward Lutyens and Herber Baker.

c . The British saw overcrowded place as _______.

Ans: unhygienic.

d . In 1888 an extension scheme called the ________________ was devised.

Ans: Lahore gate improvement scheme.

3 . Identify three differences in the city design of New Delhi and Shahjahanabad.

Ans: Shah Jahan in the year 1639 built a most magnificent and beautiful city which was known as Shahjahanabad. It was one of the Capital cities. After the revolt of 1857, a new capital was build which was known as New Delhi and it took almost 20 years to build the city.

There  were noticeable differences among the two cities. Three of them are as follows:-

  • Shahjahanabad was surrounded by a fort-palace complex. For example- Lal Qila or the Red Fort was the palace and to its west, there was a city. The city was packed up with mohallas and bazaars. It consisted of Jama Masjid, the largest and grandest mosque in India. On the other hand in New Delhi, the government complexes consisted of a two-mile avenue, the Kingsway that led to the palace of the Viceroy. On the two sides of the palace, there were Secretariat buildings. The area of New Delhi was not gathered with mohallas and bazaars.
  •  Shahjahanabad consisted of open square streets, winding lanes, water channels whereas in New Delhi streets were broad and straight. He was chaotic because of its crowds whereas New Delhi was considered as the representation of a sense of law and order.
  • Shahjahanabad had many dargahs, Khanqahs and ideas were as New Delhi consisted of parks in which trees were planted to maintain the greenery. This was done to assure an adequate supply of oxygen.

YOU ARE READING: COLONIALISM AND THE CITY TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-6

4 . Who lived in the “white” areas in cities such as Madras?

Ans: Before 1857, the living area of Indians and British were separated in the city of Madras. The British lived in the walled city during 19th century along with the wealthier Indians such as zamindars, landowners, rulers etc. Those place where the British resided was known as the “white” areas . Local people lived in mohallas and those places were known as “ black” areas. In the white areas the British learned about the Urdu culture and they were also eager to know and participate in the local festivals.

5 . What is meant by de-urbanization?

Ans: In Western world many modern cities rose with improved facilities for industrialization. In the 19th and 20th century Leeds and Manchester grew rapidly. People were searching for jobs and proper housing facilities . However the Indian cities did not develop rapidly. This was because Calcutta, Bombay and Madras grabbed all the importance in the late 18th century as Presidency cities. They were made the centers of British power.

On the other hand, many small towns which manufactured specialized goods declined as their products were no more in demand. When the trade shifted to the new centers the old trading factories couldn’t survive and declined slowly. A new administration system was set up after the defeat of the local rulers by the British government. This process was termed de-urbanization. Machlipatnam, Surat were some cities that were deurbanized in the nineteenth century.

6 . Why did the British choose to hold a grand Durbar in Delhi although it was not the capital?

Ans: After the great revolt of 1857, the British came to know about the importance of  Delhi. Although Calcutta was considered as the capital but all the important events were held at Delhi.

A Durbar was organized by Viceroy Lytton in 1877 to grant Queen Victoria the Empress of India. This was held in Delhi rather than in Calcutta. The main reason behind this was, during the rebellion, the British government has discovered the importance of Mughal Emperors in the life of the local people. They considered the Mughals as their leaders. So, the British decided to celebrate their power with a ceremony in the place which was ruled by the Mughal Emperors before 1857. Later on, in 1911 a Durbar was held in Delhi to celebrate the crowning ceremony of King George V. On this occasion, a final decision was made and declared to change the capital of India from Calcutta to Delhi.

7 . How did the old City of Delhi change under the British rule?

Ans: Before the rebellion of 1857 , the British lived happily with the wealthier Indians like the zamindars, landowners etc. in Delhi . The area in which the British lived was known as the “white” area . There they were interested to learn Urdu and to participate in local festivals. A Delhi college was led by the British in 1792  based on Urdu language.

The Revolt of 1857 changed everything. During the rebellion, the Indian soldiers captured Delhi for almost four months. The British defeated them and recaptured Delhi and then decided to take revenge against the sepoy. The British arrested Bahadur Shah Zafar ceased many cities and huge buildings were built for the European troops.

The changes that were made are as follows:-

  • The British cleared the areas around the Red Fort which consisted of gardens, mosques but the temples were not destroyed. They wanted the people of Delhi to forget about the Mughal rule.
  •  The mosques were either destroyed or used for other purposes. For example- Zinat-al-Masjid was converted into a bakery. The British did not allow anyone to worship in Jama Masjid for more than five years.
  • Almost half of the city was pulled down and canals were filled up. The western walls of Shahjahanabad were broken in the 1870s to establish railways and to expand the city.
  • The Delhi college that was built by the British was converted into a school and later on, in 1877 it was shut down permanently.

YOU ARE READING: COLONIALISM AND THE CITY TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-6

8 . How did the partition affect the life in Delhi?

Ans: The partition of India in 1947 was a cause for a huge transfer of masses on both the sides of the borders. This change caused a sudden increase in the population in Delhi . The culture, types of jobs people did , tradition of the city was almost changed after the partition of 1947.

After the partition, the people who came from foreign cities became a cause of disturbance of the peace. The people who resided in Delhi were the main sufferers as they were killed and their houses were looted and burned. The places which were left by the Muslims residing in Delhi were reoccupied by the Sikhs and the Hindus of Punjab. They also forced the Muslims of Delhi to leave their houses and sell their properties. The majority of Muslims have migrated from Delhi to Pakistan and the terrorized Muslims lived in the camps till they could leave for Pakistan.

The population of Delhi increased rapidly and near about 500000 people migrated to Delhi. Most of them were from Punjab. New colonies such as Tilak Nagar and Lajpat Nagar were set up to cope up with the increasing population. More shops, stalls were installed and the schools and colleges were reopened. The occupation of the migrants changed after they migrated from Delhi to Punjab. Earlier they were lawyers, teachers, zamindars, shopkeepers but after they migrated to Delhi they changed into vendors, carpenters, farmers, hawkers and some of them started their own business.

The partition changed the culture, tradition of Delhi. Slowly, an urban culture raised up which was based on Urdu with a new dressing style, art, tradition, and taste.

9 . Find out the history of the town you live in or any town nearby . Check when and how it has changed over years. You could look at the history of bazaars, the buildings, the cultural institutions and settlements.

Ans: Let us consider the changes in the city of Delhi over time. Delhi was mentioned in Mahabharata as Indraprastha as the capital of Pandavas. Then, Delhi regained its prosperity in the 12th  century under the rule of Prithviraj II. After his decline, the Mughal emperors resided in Delhi. Shah Jahan had a great contribution in making Delhi beautiful and magnificent. After the revolt of 1857, Delhi was captured by the British government. Many monuments were constructed at that time by the rulers such as the Qutab Minar, the Lal Qila, the Jama Masjid, the Humayun Tomb. Under British rule, Delhi has declared the capital of India. New Delhi was constructed under the British Raj. Edwin Lutyens in the twentieth century has built the Viceroy’s palace which is now known as the Rashtrapati Bhavan. The famous Mughal garden is located there.


YOU ARE READING: COLONIALISM AND THE CITY TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-6

Over time, many structural changes took place in Delhi.  Earlier, the people of Delhi used to stay in Havelis with many families but nowadays, they are living in their own house or apartments. Many malls, theaters, parks have developed in Delhi. It has become the biggest commercial area and shopping destination. It is a densely populated area because people get many opportunities to build up their careers in different fields. Many famous schools, colleges, institutions have developed in Delhi. Because of its historical monuments, tradition, culture, taste, art, Delhi is still the pride of India.

10 . Make a list of at least ten occupations in the city , town or village to which you belong to and find out how long they have existed. What does this tell you about the changes within the area.

Ans: The people of villages, towns, or cities have engaged themselves in several occupations for several years. Ten such occupations which are still followed by the people are:-

Fishing, farming, teaching, carpentry, weaving, cattle rearing, barber, blacksmith, vending , grocery.

These occupations are continued by the people. Earlier the people did these jobs without any proper education and knowledge but nowadays people have educated themselves and are doing their job more efficiently. With growing times new technologies are discovered which make their jobs easier. Many new machines are invented which have reduced labor as well as time consumption. With upcoming technologies, people have more opportunities in different fields. Earlier the farmers used plows but nowadays they are using tractors for plowing their lands. The fishermen used the nets and other traditional equipment for fishing but in the present day, they use GPS, echo Sounders technology for tracking the location of fish.

In many villages, the Indian government representatives give classes to the farmers about the new technologies. They also educate the women who are the helping hands of the farmers, laborers, etc. In this way, the introduction of modern technologies has changed the techniques of the occupations which were followed by the people for a long time.

YOU ARE READING: COLONIALISM AND THE CITY TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-6