WOMEN, CASTE, AND REFORM TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-9

You are going to go through WOMEN, CASTE, AND REFORM TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Extra Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-9. This post presents to the students for a clear conception about how to move with the basics of Extra Questions and answers. The expert prepared The Extra Questions and And Answers. https://cbsencertanswers.com/is very much with the purpose of making things way simpler and easier for the students. Especially those who are appearing for the board exams. We took every care to make sure that the effort serves the purpose. So, let us find out WOMEN, CASTE, AND REFORM TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-9. On this page, you can find the WOMEN, CASTE, AND REFORM TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Extra Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-9.

WOMEN, CASTE, AND REFORM TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-9

Text book solutions.

1 . What social ideas did the following people support:-

Rammohun Roy.

Dayanand Saraswati.

Veerasalingam Pantulu.

Jyotirao Phule.

Pandita Ramabai.


Mumtaz Ali.

Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar.


Rammohun Roy – Abolition of Sati.

Dayanand Saraswati – Established of Arya Samaj to support widow remarriage act.

Veerasalingam Pantulu – Encouraged women education and Widow remarriage act.

Jyotirao Phule – Caste equality and Justice for low caste.

Pandita Ramabai – Found widow’s home at Poona to provide shelter to the widows.

Periyar – Started the self -respect movement for the rights of the untouchables.

Mumtaz Ali – Supported the education of women in the 19th century.

Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar – Introduced the practice of Widow Remarriage.

YOU ARE READING: WOMEN, CASTE, AND REFORM TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-9

2 . State whether true or false:-

a . When the British captured Bengal they framed many new laws to regulate the rules regarding marriage, adoption, inheritance of property etc.

Ans: true.

b . Social reformers had to discard the ancient texts in order to argue for reform in social practices.

Ans: false.

c . Reformers got full support from all  sections of the people of the country.

Ans: false.

d . The child marriage restraint act was passed in 1829.

Ans: false.

3 . How did the knowledge of ancient texts help the reformers promote new laws?

Ans: The social reformers were well educated and knew different languages. They were able to read the ancient texts unlike the ordinary people. This helped them a lot in collecting proper information and support against the unjust social practices. For example:- Raja Rammohun Roy , the founder of Brahmo Samaj , was against the cruel practice of Sati . So , he wrote many petitions to prove that there were no penalty or punishment mentioned in the ancient text for disobeying the practice of Sati.

After this step taken by Rammohun Roy, many other reformers started following his path. When they found a practice that was harmful to society, to challenge them they took the help of the ancient texts to find a strong point that supported their argument. After Rammohun Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar applied the same strategy and argued that widows have the right to remarry. His debate was well approved by the British government and hence the Widow Remarriage Act was passed in 1856.

Many other reformers such as Veerasalingam Pantulu, Dayanand Saraswati used the ancient texts as their support and started protesting against the cruel practices which crippled India during that time. These sacred texts gave them huge confidence and strong moral support to raise their voice against unjust and cruel practices.

YOU ARE READING: WOMEN, CASTE, AND REFORM TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-9

4 . What were the different reasons people had for not sending girls to school?

Ans: Earlier, the girls were not allowed to go to school. They were restricted within the four walls of the house. They were meant for doing only domestic works such as cooking, washing clothes, and utensils. Even They were not allowed to move freely in the public spaces. In the nineteenth century, many reformers raised their voices for educating women. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar set up many schools for the girls but they were not well supported by the conservative society. They opposed this decision because:-

A . The people thought that sending girls to schools would take them away from home and they would deny doing the domestic works.

B . Moreover, the girls had to go through the public spaces to reach the schools. According to them, girls should be prevented to go to public spaces.

C . The male dominating society thought that providing education to girls would make them modern and superior to them and hence they strongly opposed the decision of educating the girls.

5 . Why were the Christian missionaries attacked by many people in the country? Would some people have supported them too? If so, for what reasons?

Ans:  Many Christian missionaries were setup for educating the poor children, tribals and the children of lower caste. Those missionaries were attacked by masses as they thought this would force the children to get converted into Christianity. They thought that the western system of education which were taught in those missionaries would destroy the Indian culture and tradition. Hence, many people protested against those missionaries.

Some people supported those missionaries as they thought this would provide proper education to the poor and the low caste. This would upgrade them economically and would help the Indian society to improve their thinking regarding the low caste.

6 . In the British period, what new opportunities opened up for the people who came from the caste that were regarded as “low”?

Ans: During the British period , the people of lower caste were given many opportunities. The Christian missionaries were setup for the children of low caste. The poor people also started searching for jobs. They left their villages and shifted in the cities. They worked in the newly made factories and in municipalities.

During the British colonial rule, many drains, railway tracks, buildings were constructed. This increased the demands of coolies, diggers, carriers, bricklayers, sweepers, cart pullers, etc. This was a huge opportunity for the poor and low caste people who came from villages in search of jobs. They also worked in plantations in Assam, Trinidad, Indonesia, etc. It was quite difficult for the poor people to adjust to the new environment but they saw this as a great opportunity to free themselves from the enslavement of the upper caste landowners who tortured them and humiliated them.

They were also given chance in the army. Many people who were considered untouchables got jobs in Mahar Regiment. Hence, the lower caste upgraded themselves and raised their voice against the cruel landowners.

YOU ARE READING: WOMEN, CASTE, AND REFORM TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-9

7 . How did Jyotirao the reformer justify their criticism of caste inequality in the society?

Ans:  Jyotirao Phule was one of the most outspoken leaders among all other low caste leaders. He was born in 1837, educated himself from Christian missionaries. After completing his education, he planned to protest against the injustice that were done to the lower caste people. Phule took major steps to support the low-caste. Some of them are:-

A . Jyotirao Phule protested against the claim that the Brahmins gave regarding their superiority. The Brahmins said that they were Aryans. According to Phule, Aryans were the outsiders who defeated the true children who lived there from the very beginning. As they started dominating, they considered the defeated ones as low-caste.

B .  Phule claimed that the lands captured by the upper caste actually belonged to the people who were the native of the place that the low caste people. The upper caste did not actually have any right or power on those lands.

C . Phule said that there was a golden age before the arrival of the Aryans. During that time, the peasant cultivated and prepared their own lands and also ruled the Maratha countryside.

YOU ARE READING: WOMEN, CASTE, AND REFORM TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-9

D . He also put forward a plan that the laboring caste (Shudras) and the untouchables ( Ati Shudras) should become united and raise up their voices against the caste discrimination and injustice done to them. Phule established the Satyashodhak Samaj which spread the idea of caste equality.

E . Phule wrote a book named “Gulamgiri” in the year 1873 which he dedicated to all the Americans who fought the civil war to free the slaves. Hence, Phule expanded his censure regarding the caste system to protest against all the types of inequality done to the people of the lower caste.

8 . Why did Phule dedicate his book Gulamgiri to the American movement to free slaves?

Ans: Phule was one of the most outspoken leaders who protested against the injustice done to the people of the lower caste . He fought for the rights and power of the people of the lower caste. He disagreed that the Brahmins were superior than others. The Satyashodhak Samaj setup by Phule spread the idea of caste equality.

Jyotirao Phule in the year 1873, wrote a book named “ Gulamgiri”. He dedicated this book to the Americans who had fought in the American civil war to bring an end to slavery and free the slaves in America. By doing this, Phule developed a connection between the conditions of the lower caste in India and the black slaves in America. This also shows that Phule had expanded his censure regarding the caste system to protest against all the forms of injustice such as the distress of the laborers, the embarrassment faced by the low caste, and many more.

9 . What did Ambedkar want to achieve  through the temple entry movement?

Ans: Earlier, everyone was not allowed to entry the temple. The Brahmins, the rich people and the middle class people were allowed to enter the temple. The low caste , the tribes, the untouchables were not allowed to enter the temple. The Brahmins got furious even if the Dalits used water from the temple tanks.

Ambedkar was born in a Mahar family. From his childhood, he faced caste discrimination in his school. After completing his higher studies he wrote many petitions regarding the injustice done to the lower caste by the upper caste. In the year 1927, he started a temple entry movement. Many people from his community took part in this movement. He also did three such temple entry movements between 1927 and 1935. His main motive was to protest against the injustice done to the low caste and to show everyone the power of caste prejudices within the society.

YOU ARE READING: WOMEN, CASTE, AND REFORM TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-9

10 . Why were Jyotirao Phule and Ramaswamy Naicker critical of national movement? Did their criticism help the national struggle in any way?

Ans: Jyotirao Phule was one of the popular low caste leaders. He was critical of the national movements as those movements gave false hope to the low caste people. To gather more people , the upper caste leaders promised the Shudras, Ati Shudras, tribals that they would remain united but later they forgot all their promises and treated them as they did earlier. The Brahmins advised that the people from upper and low caste should come together but later on it would be again “ me here and you over there”.

E . V. Ramaswamy Naicker also criticized those national movements. He was a member of Congress but soon he left it. He did so because he felt disgusted when he observed that the sitting arrangements at a feast followed caste discrimination. The seat of the lower caste was placed at a distance from the upper caste leaders. He also criticized the Hindu scriptures such as the Ramayana, the Codes of Many, the Bhagavad Gita as he thought that with the help of those scriptures the Brahmins dominated the low caste and considered themselves as superior. Periyar also started the Self-respect movement in the support of the untouchables.

Their thinking or criticism did not remain unchallenged. Their speeches, writings, and movements did lead the upper caste to rethink and self-criticize them. But, the orthodox Hindus set up Sanatan Sharma Sabha and the Bharat Dharma Mahamandal in the North. Debates and arguments regarding the caste continued and are still going on in the present time.