THE MAKING OF NATIONAL MOVEMENT: 1870S – 1947 TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-11

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THE MAKING OF NATIONAL MOVEMENT: 1870S – 1947 TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-11

Text book solutions.

1 . Why were people dissatisfied with British rule in 1870s and 1880s?

Ans: People were dissatisfied and unhappy with the British rule during the years the 1870s and 1880s. The reason behind their dissatisfaction was:-

A . The British government introduced the Arms Act in the year 1878. This act prohibited the Indians to keep weapons without a proper license. This was done by Lord Lytton who was the Viceroy from 1876 to 1880.

B . Later on, in the same year he introduced the Vernacular Press Act. In this act, the local papers were prohibited to publish any topic which would develop a feeling of disappointment among the masses regarding the British government. If the government found anything offensive, they would immediately confiscate the newspaper. In the year 1881, Lord Ripon withdrew this act.

C .  In the year 1883, Sir C.P. Ilbert introduced the Ilbert Bill. This bill prohibited judicial disqualification based on race distinctions. This bill aimed at bringing equality among the British and Indian judges. But later on, this bill was withdrawn by the government and the government decided that the Session judge and District Magistrate would be an Indian. This completely shattered the hopes of Indians and they accepted that during the British Raj, fair play could not be expected.  

YOU ARE READING: THE MAKING OF NATIONAL MOVEMENT: 1870S – 1947 TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-11

2 . Who did the Indian National Congress wish to speak for?

Ans: The Indian National Congress spoke for all the communities . It asked for the rights of Indians in the administrative fields. It put forward the demand that Indians should be designated at higher positions in the administration. The Congress also asked the government to conduct the Civil Service Examination in London as well as in India. The Congress also spoke up about the economic problems. They considered the British government as the main cause of poverty in India as they have increased the land revenues which troubled the zamindars and the peasants. The British government spent lakhs for their welfare which slowly led India into poverty. The leaders of Congress strongly opposed the government in their speeches and petitions. The Congress argued that the British should accept their demands and give justice to the Indians.

3 . What economic impact did the First World War have on India?

Ans: The First World War made structural changes in the economy of India. It increased the demands of the defense equipment. The government raised taxes on business profits and other incomes which was a cause of trouble for the common people. On the other hand, the Indian industries started flourishing during the war as the import of goods from other countries declined. The Indian industries started developing during the First World War.

On the other hand, the British government decided to expand its army. Many villages were forced to send soldiers for an unknown cause. Those soldiers were sent abroad to serve the British. Thus the soldiers made a mindset to oppose the British rule.

YOU ARE READING: THE MAKING OF NATIONAL MOVEMENT: 1870S – 1947 TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-11

4 . What did the Muslim league resolution of 1940 ask for?

Ans: The Muslim league from the late 1930s started differentiating the Muslims from the Hindus and considered the Muslims as different “ nation”. So , in the year 1940 , the Muslim league passed a resolution which demanded for new “Independent States” for the Muslims in the north-western and eastern parts of the country . In their resolution , they did not demand any partition or mentioned anything about Pakistan.

5 . Who were the Moderators? How they propose to struggle against British rule?

Ans: During the years 1885 to 1905, the Congress was guided by a group of leaders who were well educated and belonged to the middle class were known as Moderators. Some of them were lawyers, barristers, teachers, etc. Most of them completed their education in England and felt that the British government wanted to give justice to the Indians. They were called moderators as they were strong believers in the politics which were open-minded and ‘moderate’.

The moderators used two objectives to fight against the British rule.

1 . First Set of Methods.

The moderators felt it necessary to educate the Indians and give them a knowledge of modern politics. This would help to create a political awareness among the public. Therefore, they followed the following methods:-

A . Meetings were held where different speeches were conducted for proposing popular demands.

B . They used the press to spread criticism of the government policies among the masses.

C . They sent many petitions to the government and the British parliament. The petitions were prepared serially with facts and arguments. The real aim of those petitions was to educate the Indians.

YOU ARE READING: THE MAKING OF NATIONAL MOVEMENT: 1870S – 1947 TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-11

2 . Second Set of Methods.

The moderators then decided to convince the British government. To achieve this the following methods were used:-

A . They used three P’s that is petitions, prayers, and protests.  They wrote petitions, letters of protest to the British government to view the difficulties of the Indians.

B . In 1889, a British committee of the Indian National Congress was set up in London which would bring out a journal named India, which would present the difficulties of India in front of the British government.

C . Indian leaders were sent to Britain to create awareness among the British public about the difficulties of Indians. For example:- Dadabhai Naoroji spent half of his life in Britain to speak about the problems of Indians.

6 . How was the politics of the Radical within the Congress different from that of the Moderators?

Ans: The Radicals followed a different way of thinking than the moderators. They believed in actions rather than in the policy of writing petitions. They thought that the moderators relied on the generosity of the British instead of self-relying and challenging the British with their own strength. Moreover, they believed in unity and debated that the Indians should fight for their independence.

The Radicals adopted different methods which included the following:-

1 . Swadeshi.

The system of Swadeshi meant producing the items of necessity in one’s own country and use them without depending on  the imported goods. People started to destroy the foreign clothes and other items.

2 . Boycott.

Tilak said “ When you accept Swadeshi, you must boycott foreign goods”. The imported goods were boycotted which provided employment to the Indians as well as challenged the British authority.

3 . National Education.

The Radicals wanted to replace the government-controlled universities and colleges. Many national schools and colleges were established in East Bengal for example- Bengal National College was established in Calcutta, Pachaiyappa National College at  Chennai.

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4 . Passive Resistance.

The Radicals believed in non-violent resistance and political action to achieve their goals. They believed in claiming their rights rather than begging for them. Also, they urged the people to boycott all the important goods, government schools, colleges, jobs. They advised the people to have self-confidence and to have the spirit of sacrifice to achieve their goals.

7 . Discuss the various forms of the Non-cooperation movement took in different parts of India. How did people understand Gandhiji?

Ans: Gandhiji was loyal to the British government during the First World War but after the events of 1919 he became furious and started protesting against the British. The following events led to the Non-cooperation movement:-

Khilafat Wrong.

The British defeated Turkey in the First World War and the Ottoman Empire was divided. The Sultan of Turkey was removed from his authority. This made the Muslim community worried about their position in the country.

Rowlatt Act.

Rowlatt Act was passed in March 1919 by Justice Rowlatt. Its main aim was to control the mass uprising in the country. This implied that a person would be arrested without a warrant, individuals were restricted from doing any movements. However, Gandhiji ignored the implications and started Satyagraha.

Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy.

A large crowd gathered at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar to oppose the arrest of Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlu and Dr. Satya Pal. General Dyer surrounded the place with his troops and ordered them to shoot. Due to this many innocent people were killed mercilessly by the British troops. This made the people furious which led to an uprising.

Gandhiji became a great support for the common people. He was considered as Messiah (someone who could help the common people to overcome their misery). In many places, slogans such as “ Gandhi Maharaj ki Jai” were shouted. The farmers and the peasants highly relied on Gandhiji as they thought he could help them to fight against the landlords and could help to reduce the taxes. Hence, Gandhiji became a great hero.

YOU ARE READING: THE MAKING OF NATIONAL MOVEMENT: 1870S – 1947 TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-11

8 . Why did Gandhiji choose to break the salt law?

Ans: Gandhiji was tensed about the salt law as it was a necessary item for food. The British government had imposed heavy taxes on salt which was very difficult for the common people to pay. So in 1930, Gandhiji decided to start a March to break the salt law. The salt law was related to everyone so the rich and poor were not differentiated and everyone became united and followed Gandhiji’s path. On 6th April 1930 Gandhiji along with his followers marched from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, where they disobeyed the laws by producing natural salt by evaporating seawater.

9 . Discuss the developments of 1937-47 period that led to the creation of Pakistan.

Ans: During the year 1940, the Muslim league demanded for  independent states for the Muslims. The development of 1937-47 period that led to the creation of Pakistan were:-

A . In the provisional elections of 1937, the league was influenced that they were the second priority in the administrative structure as they were present in minority.

B . The Congress denied the Muslim league’s wish to form a joint congress- league in 1937. This decision of Congress developed a feeling of frustration among the league.

C . The Congress failed to stabilize the Muslims in 1930 which allowed the Muslim league to expand its support. The Muslim league widened its support in the 1940s when the Congress leaders were in jail.

D . In the year 1946, elections were again held in which the Congress’s performance as well but the Muslim league did an eye-catching job. So, the league decided to stick with their demand for a new state of Pakistan.

YOU ARE READING: THE MAKING OF NATIONAL MOVEMENT: 1870S – 1947 TEXTBOOK (NCERT) Questions and Answers of CBSE, Class 8, History Chapter-11

E . The British cabinet sent a three-member mission to Delhi in March 1946 to test the demands of Muslims and to decide a political structure. However, this mission failed and the Muslims became furious and announced a “Direct Action Day” on 16 August 1946 to win Pakistan. On that day, violence broke out and many people especially the Hindus were affected and this spread in many parts of India. With this mass uprising, in 1947 India was divided and Pakistan was born.

10 . Find out how the national movement was set in your city, district, area, or state. Who participated in it and who led it? What did the movement in your area achieve?

Ans: Earlier the indigo cultivators were exploited by the British government. In Champaran, the Indigo cultivators were forced to grow only indigo in their lands and were not permitted to grow any other crops. If they grew other crops, the government destroyed those crops and took their cattle as a penalty. Moreover, the British bought that indigo at a very cheap rate which was decided by them, hence the cultivators faced a huge loss. The indigo cultivators of Champaran became furious and called Gandhiji for help.

Gandhiji was great support for the peasants, farmers. The indigo cultivators invited Gandhiji to look into their matter. The British government prohibited the entry of Gandhiji but anyhow Gandhiji reached Champaran. He suggested the cultivators do Satyagraha. By doing so, the British were forced to look into the matter of the indigo cultivators. This gave them great relief.

11 . Find out more about the life and work of any two participants or leaders of the national movement and wrote a short essay about them. You may choose a person not mentioned in this chapter.


Chakravarti Rajagopalachari.

Chakravarti Rajagopalachari was also known as Rajaji. He was an independent activist, lawyer, writer, politician. He was the last Governor-general of India, as it soon achieved republic in the year 1950. Rajagopalachari was the leader of the Indian National Congress, Governor-general of West Bengal, Premier of the Madras Presidency, etc. He was the founder of the Swatantra Party. He also acquired the nickname ‘Mango of Salem’.  

Rajagopalachari started his legal practice in the 1900s at the Salem court. Later on, he joined the Indian National Congress, took part in Rowlatt Act, the Non-cooperation movement. In 1930, Rajagopalachari led the Vedaranyam Salt Satyagraha. He was elected as the Prime Minister of Madras Presidency. Later on, he opposed the Quit India Movement. Rajagopalachari supported the talks of Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Muslim League and proposed the C.R. formula. He was a part of the Interim Government of India. He also set up the Anti-Congress front in Madras. Rajagopalachari died at the age of 94 on 25th December 1972.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was a famous Indian politician who was also known as Sardar Patel. He was the first Deputy Prime Minister of India. He was a senior leader of the Indian National Congress and played a leading role in the struggle for independence.

Sardar Patel was a successful lawyer and under his influence, the peasants from Kheda, Borsad, and Bardol raised non-violent civil disobedience movement against the British government. As a Deputy Prime Minister, he arranged relief efforts for refugees fleeing to Punjab and Delhi from Pakistan. Nearly 565 princely states came out of British control by the Indian Independence Act of 1947. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel did an amazing job by merging all the states of Indian territories. The Statue of Unity located in Gujarat is the tallest statue which was dedicated to him and was made on 31st October 2018.

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