1)Write a note
a)What was meant by the ‘civilising mission’ of the colonizers?
ANSWER:-The European countries acquired colonies in the East Asian countries to exploit their natural resources. Like other European countries the French also propagated that it was their mission to bring the benefits of civilization to backward people. They posed that they were driven by the idea of the civilizing mission. Like the British in India, the French claimed they were bringing modern civilization to Vietnam. They considered that it was their duty to bring modern ideas into their colonies even at the cost of destroying the local culture, beliefs, etc.
(b) Huynh Phu So
ANSWER:- Huynh Phu So was the founder of a nationalist movement called Hoa Hao. He performed miracles and helped the poor. His criticism against useless expenditure had a wide appeal. He also opposed the sale of child brides, gambling and the use of alcohol and opium. The French tried to suppress the movement inspired by Huynh Phu So. They declared him mad, called him the Mad Bonze, and put him in a mental asylum. But the doctor, who had to prove him mad, became his follower. Finally, he was exiled to Laos and many of his followers were sent to concentration camps.
2. Explain the following:
(a) Only one-third of the students in Vietnam would pass the school-leaving examinations.
(b) The French began building
canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta.
(c) The government made the Saigon Native Girls School take back the students it had expelled.
(d) Rats were most common in the modern, newly built areas of Hanoi.
a)The French authorities deliberately failed the students in the final year of the French examination. They did not want the Vietnamese to qualify for the higher-paying jobs. Due to this, only one-third of the students in Vietnam could pass the school-leaving examinations.
b) The French began building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta for increased cultivation. This was done under a garb to “civilise” Vietnam on a European model, but it was actually an economic idea meant to increase rice production and subsequent export of rice to the international market.
c)When one of the girls protested against demeaning of Vietnamese culture, she was expelled by the School. This resulted in large scale protest against the school authorities. Faced with such protest, the government made the Saigon Native Girls School to take back the expelled student.
d)Rats were most common in the modern, newly built areas of Hanoi because the modern and apparently hygienic sewage system provided ideal breeding grounds for rodents apart from being a good transport system as well, for the rats. Sewage from the old city was drained out into the river or overflowed in the streets during heavy rains. The large sewers now became a
protected breeding and living space for rats. Hanoi, despite its “modernity”, became the chief cause of the plague in 1903.
3)Describe the ideas behind the Tonkin Free School. To what extent is it a typical example of colonial ideas in Vietnam?
ANSWER:- Like other colonisers, the French also thought that they were on a civilising mission. Thus the Tonkin Free School was opened to give Western education. The school taught science, hygiene and French, other than the common subjects. For these three subjects the students had to attend evening classes and also pay separately. The students were not only made to attend these classes but they were asked to sport modern looks too. A typical example of this was that Vietnamese were asked to cut off their long hair and adopt a short hair cut which was absolutely against their culture.
4)What was Phan Chu Trinh’s objective for Vietnam? How were his ideas different from those of Phan Boi Chau?
ANSWER:- Phan Chu Trinh strongly differed with Phan Boi Chau. He was hostile to the monarchy and opposed the idea of resisting French with the help of court. He was highly influenced by the democratic ideals of the west. He accepted the French ideals of liberty. He wanted the French to set up legal and educational institutions, and develop agriculture and industries.
1)With reference to what you have read in this chapter, discuss the influence of China on Vietnam’s culture and life.
ANSWER:-The influence of China on Vietnam’s culture and life was multifarious before the French colonised Vietnam. Even when the latter gained independence in 1945, the rulers maintained the use of Chinese governance systems and culture. The elites were vastly influenced by Chinese culture and life, as has been elucidated in Phan Boi Chau’s book “The History of the Loss of Vietnam”. Chinese language and Confucianism were followed by the upper classes in Vietnam.
In 1911, when the Chinese Republic was set up, Vietnamese students followed suit in organising the Association for the Restoration of Vietnam. Vietnamese men also kept their hair long – a Chinese tradition.
2)What was the role of religious groups in the development of anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam?
ANSWER:- The religious beliefs in Vietnam were a mixture of Buddhism, Confucianism and local practices. Christianity was introduced by French missionaries. They were intolerant of easygoing attitude of the Vietnamese. From the eighteenth century, many religious movements turned hostile to the Western presence. Scholars Revolt of 1969 was one of the early movements against the spread of Christianity. Such revolts finally culminated in the rise of nationalism and anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam.
3) Explain the causes of the US involvement in the war in Vietnam. What effect did this involvement have on life within the US itself?
ANSWER:-The US got involved in the war in Vietnam because it feared that a communist government would come to power in Vietnam after the National Liberation Front formed a coalition with the Ho Chi Minh government in the north,against Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime. US policy-planners feared a spread of communism to other countries in the area. This involvement in the Vietnam War affected life within the US itself because of widespread public dissent. Only university graduates were exempt from compulsory service in the army and this caused even more anger amongst the minorities and working-class families.
4) Write an evaluation of the Vietnamese war against the US from the point of
(a) A porter on the Ho Chi Minh trail.
(b) A woman soldier

ANSWER:- a)From 1965 to 1972, the US-Vietnam War continued and caused losses to both US and Vietnam. The Vietnamese people suffered human and property losses, yet they never stopped their struggle for freedom. Here it is important to mention the role played by the porters in getting freedom and unity of Vietnam. The porters set out without fear on the Ho Chi Minh Trail which was a great expansive network of roads and footpaths. The heroic porters carried as much as 25kg to 70 kg of weight on their backs or bicycles. They did not fear that they might fall over in the deep valleys. They bravely walked on the narrow, dangerous roads that marked the treacherous routes. They also did not feel afraid of being shot down by aircraft guns. They put all their fears aside and walked on to maintain the supply line.

b) The Vietnamese women played an important role in the US-Vietnam War. They were both warriors and workers. As warriors and soldiers, the Vietnamese women constructed six air strips, they neutralised thousands of bombs and went on to shoot down fifteen planes. There were 1.5 million Vietnamese women in the regular army, the militia, the local forces and professional teams.

5)What was the role of women in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietnam? Compare this with the role of women in the nationalist struggle in India.
ANSWER:-Women took active part in the anti- imperial struggle in Vietnam. On the other hand, women in India mainly restricted themselves to the supporting role.Women who rebelled against social conventions
were idealised and rebel women of the past were likewise celebrated. Trieu Au
was a popular figure in nationalist tales.