1. Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which of these statements is not a valid
reason for the depletion of flora and fauna?
(a) Agricultural expansion.
(b) Large scale developmental projects.
(c) Grazing and fuelwood collection.
(d) Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation.
Answer:- (c) Grazing and fuelwood collection.
(ii) Which of the following conservation
strategies do not directly involve community participation?
(a) Joint forest management
(c) Chipko Movement
(b) Beej Bachao Andolan
(d) Demarcation of Wildlife sanctuaries
Answer:- (d) Demarcation of Wildlife
2. Match the following animals with their
category of existence.
Category of existence
Black buck
Asiatic elephant
Andaman wild pig
Himalayan brown bear
Pink head duck
3. Match the following.
Reserved forests – forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation
of forest and wildlife resources.
Protected forests – forests forest lands are protected from any further depletion.
Unclassed – other forests and wastelands belonging to both
government and private individuals and communities.
4. Answer the following questions in about 30
(i) What is biodiversity? Why is biodiversity
important for human lives?
(ii) How have human activities affected the
depletion of flora and fauna? Explain.
Answer:- (i) Biodiversity is immensely rich in wildlife and cultivated species, diverse in form and function, but closely integrated into a system through multiple networks of interdependencies.

It is important for human lives because human beings, along with the
biodiversity, form a complete web of the ecological system in which we are only apart and are very much dependent on this system for our own existence.

(ii) Several human activities have greatly affected the depletion of flora and fauna and have led to a decline in India’sbiodiversity. Various such activities are:
Shifting cultivation (Jhum), a type of ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
c.  Habitat destruction, Hunting and poaching and illegal trade of animal skin, tusk, bones, teeth, horns, etc which lead to the decline of India’s biodiversity.
d. Environmental pollution, poisoning of water bodies due to the discharge of industrial effluents, chemicals, wastes, etc. are also responsible for the depletion of flora and fauna.

e.  Large scale development projects and destruction of forests.

f.   Over-exploitation of forest products 
Other important causes of environmental destruction are unequal access, inequitable consumption of forest resources and differential sharing of responsibility for environmental well-being.
5. Answer the following questions in about 120words.
(i) Describe how communities have conserved and protected forests and wildlife in India?
(ii) Write a note on good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife.
i)Forests in India are home to several different communities. These communities have a complex relationship with their environment. Contribution by these communities towards the protection of forests and wildlife can be explained by given below:
a)    The inhabitants of five villagers in Alwar(Rajasthan) have declared 1200 hectares of forest as the Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri’, declaring their own set of rules and regulations which do not allow hunting and are protecting the wildlife against any outside encroachments.
The Mundas and the Santhal of Chhota Nagpur region worshipMahua and Kadamba trees; the tribals of Orissa and Bihar worship the tamarind and mango trees. Similarly, the Bishnois of Rajasthan holds the antelope’s in high reverence. 
Villagers around the Sariska Tiger Reserve have opposed mining activities in the region as these activities endanger wildlife.
d)    The Chipko Movement in Uttaranchal has successfully resisted cutting of trees as forests are home to different communities and hilly people. 
ii) Good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife are plenty. Such as: 
a)  The famous Chipko Movement in the Himalayas has successfully resisted deforestation in several areas.
b)  Many non-governmental organisations are working towards creating public awareness for conserving depleting forest cover and vanishing wildlife.
c)   Running community awareness programmes such as Vanmahotsav
etc. from time to time.
d)    Use of flora and fauna in religious functions.
e)   In our country Joint Forest Management (JFM) programme offers
a nice example for involving local communities in the management and restoration of degraded forests.