TEXTBOOK ANSWERS AND SOLUTIONS The Rise of Nationalism in Europe India and the Contemporary World II CBSE CLASS X –SOCIAL SCIENCE

Write in brief
Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary. He became a member of the secret
society of the Carbonari. He attempted a revolution in Liguria, but was
captured & sent to exile in 1831. He subsequently founded two secret
i.e.   1) Young Italy in
          2) Young Europe in Berne.
            The societies had a
vast base with members from many countries like Poland, France, Italy & the
German states. He believed that God had intended nations to be the natural
units of mankind. So Italy could not continue to be epoch of small states &
kingdoms. It had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance
of nation.
Camillo de Cavour :-
Cavour became the chief minister of piedmont in 1852. His main aim was
to effect the emancipation of Italy from Austria. He was neither a
revolutionary nor a democrat. But he is known as the ‘real maker of Italy’.
Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France, he succeeded in defeating
the Austrian forces in 1859.

The Greek
of war of independence:-
Greece had been a part of the Ottoman Empire since
the 15th century.
The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe
sparked off a struggle for independence amongst the Greeks which began in 1821.
Nationalist in Greece got support from other Greeks
living in exile & also form many west Europeans, who had sympathised for
the ancient Greek culture.
Poets & artists landed Greece as the cradle of
European civilization mobilised public opinion to support its struggle against
a Muslim empire.
The English poet, Lord Byron organised funds &
later went to fight in the war, where, he died of fever in 1824.
Finally, the treaty of Constantinople of 1832
recognised Greece as an independent nation.
It is the name of German National Assembly founded during the
Revolution of 1818 that tried to unite Germany in a democratic way. The
assembly was attended by 831 deputies. The members had drafted the constitution
for a new German nation. The new constitution was rejected by Friedrich William
IV, the King of Prussia. Though the Frankfurt Parliament failed to unite
Germany, it had far-reaching consequences of Germany.
2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of
collective identity among the French people?
Ans:- The first clear cut expression of nationalism come in France with
the French Revolution in 1780.
The introduction of La Patric (the father land)
& Le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the nation of a united community enjoying
equal rights under a constitution.
A new French flag, the tricolour was chosen to
replace the former royal standard.
The estate General was elected by the body of active
citizens & renamed the ‘National Assembly’.
New hymns were composed, oaths taken & martyrs
commemorated, all in the name of the nation.
3. Who were Marianne & Germania, what was the importance of the way
in which they were portrayed ?
1)      Artists in the 18th
century & 19th centuries started representing nations in human
forms. Nations were then portrayed as female figure.
2)      The female form
that was chosen to personify the nation did not stand for any particular woman
in real life, rather it sought to give an abstract idea of the nation in a
concrete form.
3)      Even after the
French Revolution artists use the female allegory to portray ideas such as
liberty, Justice & the republic.
4)      These ideals were
represented through specific objects, or symbols. The attributes of liberty were
the red cap, or the broken chain, while justice was generally a
blind folded women, carrying a pair weighing scales.
5)      In France, she
was christened Marianne, a popular christen name which underlined the idea of a
people’s nation her characteristics were drawn from those of liberty & the
Republic the red cap, the tricolour, the cocked. To popularise the
symbols, the states of Marianne were erected in public squares.
6)      Similarly,
Germania became the allegory of the German nation. In visual representation,
Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.

Q. 5. What changes did Napoleon
introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories
ruled by him? (CBSE March 2012)
1)      Napoleon
introduced the Napoleonic code which did away with all privileges based on
birth, established eq1uality before the law and secured the right to properly.
2)      In many parts of
Europe like in the Dutch Republic Switzerland, Italy and Germany, he simplified
the administrative divisions abolished the feudal system that freed peasants
from serfdom and manorial dues.
3)      Napoleon removed
the guild restrictions from the towns.
4)      He laid stress on
infrastructure i.e., transportation, communication and the banking system.
These new reforms were appreciated by the peasants. Workers, businessman.
Traders and even by the common people.
Q.1. Explain what is meant by
the 1848 revolution of the liberals.  What were the political, social and economic
ideas supported by the liberals? (CBSE March 2011)
1)      It was the revolt
which was led by unemployed workers, peasants and educated middle class.
2)      Events of
February 1848 in France had brought about abdication of the monarch and a
republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed.
3)      The changes in
France inspired men and women of the liberal middle classes of Germany. Italy,
Poland, Austria and Hungary to fight for national unification.
4)      The liberals took
advantages of the unrest prevailing in the society. They demanded the creation
of nation state on parliamentary principles, freedom of the press and freedom
of association.
social and economic ideas of liberals:
1)      The liberals
demanded the creation of a nation-state on parliamentary principles.
2)      The issue of
extending political rights to women was a controversial issue as some were in
favour of granting political rights to women but most of the liberals were
against this.
3)      Serfdom and
bonded labour were abolished in most of the European countries due to the
efforts of the liberals.
Q. 2.    Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the
growth of nationalism in Europe.
1)      Romanticism:
To understand the role of
culture in arousing the feeling of nationalism, let us take the example of
Romanticism, a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular for of
nationalist sentiment.
Romantic artists
were against the glorification of reasoning, and science, and focused on
emotions, institutions and mystical feelings. They wanted to share a collective
heritage and a common cultural past as the basis of a nation.  
Johann Gottfried
was one of the famous Romantic German philosophers who claimed that true German
culture was to be discovered among the common people’
2)      Poland :          
Culture played an important
role in arousing the spirit of nationalism in Poland, also which had been partitioned
at the end of the eighteenth century by the Great Powers – Russia, Prussia and
Even though
Poland no longer existed as an independent territory national feelings were
kept alive through music and language. Karol Kurpinski, for example, celebrated
the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like
the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
3)      Slavic Culture:
Different Slavic nationalistic struggled to define their identity and
independence. This struggle also led to the First World War.
Q. 4.    How was the history of the nationalism in Britain unlike the rest
of Europe?
1)      No revolution- In
Britain  the formation of the nation was
not the result of sudden upheaval or revolution. It was the result of long
drawn our process, whereas in most of the other European nations, revolution
was responsible.
2)      Different
cultures:  The spirit of nationalism
occurred in Britain in spite of many change groups like English, Wells, Scot of
Irish whereas in most of the other European nations people belonged to some
ethnic group.

3)      Role of
parliament:  The English parliament,
which has seized power from the monarchy, was the instrument through which the
nation state came into existence, whereas in other European countries kings or
other national heroes played a major role in the formation of a nation state.