Question 1:
Give two reasons why the population of London expanded from the middle of the
eighteenth century.

Answer :  

In the middle of the
eighteenth century London had turned into a magnet city for the migrant
population .The prime reason was of course economic security. Almost every kind
of job was available there in London. Jobs like labour, artisans, clerks ,
dockyard jobs , industry related jobs were abundant which attracted people from
almost every part of London.

Apart from dockyard
jobs there had been many more job assuring industries which attracted people to
London .Clothing and footwear, metals and engineering, printing and stationary,
wood and furniture , motor car manufacturing and electrical goods had been the
main job producing sectors which attracted people to London. Besides these,
there were plenty of sectors like surgical instruments , watches, metal tools
dealing with distinctness attracted people to London.

Question 2:
What were the changes in the kind of work available to women in London between
the nineteenth and the twentieth century? Explain the factors which led to this

Answer :

Significant had been
the changes in case of the work for women between the nineteenth and twentieth
century. A transition can be noticed in the works of the women .This transition
was due to technological advancements which turned out to be reason of the
women’s losing jobs in the industries. Now women started to work from their
households. Some women started to lodging out of doors even to earn .Some
engaged themselves into works like tailoring, washing or making matchboxes.

Question 3:
How does the existence of a large urban population affect each of the
following? Illustrate with historical examples.
(a) A private landlord
(b) A Police Superintendent in charge of law and order
(c) A leader of a political party

Answer :
(a) The first and most important thing the flow of urban population needed was
shelter, place to stay. This created the opportunity for the private landlords.
They used the opportunity and increased the rates of the rent .In this way the
landlords profited to the utmost.

(b)  With the increase of the population
in the urban areas criminal activities increased significantly .The police were
put under pressure for the increase in the criminal activities. They had to
maintain law and order situation .A superintendent had taken many effective
measures to curb the criminal acts. The criminals were arrested and high
penalties were enforced. The pick-pockets , thieves, murders , etc all were
detained and treated with highest penalty.

(c)  With the increase in the
population basic needs of the people turned out to be burning social issues.
Political parties highlighted food, water, jobs, housing etc as the prime
issues of the people and attracted the attention of the common mass. Besides,
the common mass was annoyed by the brutal suppression by the police and rose to
rebellion in 1887 which is known as Bloody Sunday .Thus political leaders
mobilized common mass when they needed but paid no heed to the basic needs of the
common people.

Question 4:
Give explanations for the following:
(a) Why well-off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in
the nineteenth century.
(b) Why a number of Bombay films were about the lives of migrants.
(c) What led to the major expansion of Bombay’s population in the
mid-nineteenth century?

Answer :
(a) With the Industrial Revolution a lot of people started to teem in every
parts of London .Factory and workshop owners did not make any arrangements for
the workers .Instead they built cheap tenements for the workers which were
cheap and inappropriate for living .As the condition of the tenements were poor
and unsafe the factory and workshop owners supported the need to build housing
for the poor on the following grounds –

1.       The tenements being of one room had the
lacuna of sanitation and proper ventilation.
2.       Those tenements were not fit to protect
against fire and cold.
3.       Total London turned out to be a dirty city.
To clean the city there were demands to make a good housing.
(b) As Bombay was made the chief of western port in place of Surat , many
migrants flocked there from the different parts of India .Migrants from Lahore,
Calcutta, and Madras came and contributed in the film Industry of Bombay .To
give a real touch , films were made on real characters of the migrants. It
dealt with the fascinating dream and the harsh reality of life .

(c)  The following are the reasons for
Bombay’s expansion –
Bombay became the
capital of Bombay Presidency after Anglo Maratha war. And with the increase in
opium and cotton trade city quickly expanded as large communities of traders,
bankers, artisans and shopkeepers came to settle in Bombay.

Textile mills are
other reasons for the increase in migration. In the year of 1854 the first
textile mill was established and by 1921 there were total 85 cotton mills which
employed near about 146000 workers.


Railways turned out
to another reason for the migration to Bombay. Bombay had been the junction of
two major railways .So a lot of people surged to Bombay.

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