This chapter deals with the various
classification of animal kingdom usually we are families with the plants and
their classes from junior classes
List us now briefly discuss again here –
1) What is the basis of
classification of algae?
Based on –      Pigments
– Storage products
– chemistry of cell wall
When and where does reduction division takes place in the life cycle of
liverwort, a moss, a fern, a gymnosperm & an angiosperm?
In all these cases, meiosis is spores & occurs at the time of asexual
reproduction. It produces haploid spores.
In live warts and mosses it occur sir spore mother’s cells found in capsule. In
ferns it occurs in spore mother cell found in sporangia. In gymnosperm it
occurs in ancrooporangium & in angiosperm also it occurs in
Name three groups of plants that bear archegonia. Briefly describe the life
cycle of any one of them.
Archegonia are found in archegoniate like Bryophyte, ptridophyta &
You can describe the life cycle of a fern or man.
Mention the plaids of the following: Peritoneal cell of mass, primary endosperm
nucleus in dicot, leaf cell of a moss; portholes cell of fern, gamma cell in
marchontia; merishom cell of a monocot, ovum of a licrwort & zygote of a
Peritoneal cell (haploid, x)
Primary endosperm nucleus of dicot (triploid, 3x)
Leaf cell o f moss (haploid, x)
Portholes cell of fern (haploid, x)
Gamma cell of Marchontia (haploid, x)
Meristem cell of monocot (diploid, 2 xs)
Ovum of live worth (haploid, x)
Zygote of a fern (diploid, 2x)
Both gymnosperms & angiosperms bear seed, then why they are classified
Because gymnosperms bear necked seed without covered by a fruit where as
angiosperm bears covered seed by fruit.
What is peterospory? Briefly comment upon its significance? Give two examples.
When same plant bears two types of spores (micro- spores & megaspores) is
called netrosposy
Found in – pteridophytes like salvia, all gymnosperms & angiosperms
It has helped in the differentiation of male & fern all gametophytes &
greater cones of survival of female gametophyte that develops in the mega
        Explain briefly the following terms
with suitable examples
1) Protozoa –
             It is
the puvenile, green, autotrophic filament like haploid, independent,
gametophytes stage in the life cycle of moss.
2) Antheridia-
           It is
multicellular, jacketed male sex organ in oxyophytes & ptesidophytes. It
produces sperms (a therozoids)
3) Archegonia
–          It is multicultural,
jacketed, flask shaped female sex organs in bryophyin, pteridophytes &
gymnosperms. It has a neck & swollen Venter & produces a single female
gamets called egg or ovum
4) Diplontic –
             It is
a type of life cycle in which dominant free living phase is diploid (2nd It
produces gamete meiosis e.g. focus.
Saprophyte            It
is a leaf that bears sporangia rosary. it may be microsporophyll. It aggregate
to fern stobilliorane.
E.g. = fern.
6) Isogamies
It is the sexual reproduction in which the furring gametes are similar in
E.g. = worthies.
Match the following
                        Plants                                      Groups
a) Chlamydomanas
i) Moss
b) Cycas
ii) Pteridophyte
c) Selaginella
iii) Alga’s
d) Sphagnum
iv) Gymnosperm
An: –    a) = (iii)
b) = (iv)
c) = (ii)
d) = (i)
Write a note on economic importance of algal & gymnosperms
Economic Importance of algal
1) Brown algal are used as food
2)  Some brown algal get attached to hulls of ships called fouling of
3) Focus & laminiraia are rich source of iodine
Economic Importance of gymnosperms.
1) Gymnosperms woods are used in manufacture of paper.
2) Drug ephedrine is obtained from Ephedrine
3) Gymnosperm possesses softwood.
4) Some of pines are edible.
Difference take between Red algal & Brown algal.
Red algal
1) Unicellular species fewer.
ii) Phycobilins present
iii) Chlorophyee – a & d type
iv) Fucoxanthin yobi present
Brown algal
i) Unicellular species
ii) Phycobilins absent
iii) chlorophyll a & c
iv) It is absent.
Differentiate between liverworts & Mosses
The plant body is dorisventrol
Rhizoids are unicellular
Columbus is generally absent
The plant body has radial
Rhizoids are multicultural
Capsule contains a sterile
Differentiate between Homusporous & Heterosporus Ptesidophytes
Homosporous  Pteridophytes
All the sporangia are similar
The spores are of one type. 
Heterosporous pteridophytes
The sporangia are of two types,
macro & micro poring  
The spores are of two type
Difference Between Synagamy & Triple fusion
It is the archival or generalize
Zygote forms the embryo
Triple fusion
It is vegetative fertilization
Primary endosperm cell produces a
food laden endosperm
Distinguish between monocots & dicots
There are one cotyledon
Flowers are usually timorous
Pollen grains generally possess a
single germinal furrow
There are usually two cotyledon
Flowers are generally pentamirous
Pollen grains commonly have three
germ pores.
Describe the important characteristics of gymnosperms
I) the sporophylls are aggregated to form cones.
ii) The embryo may
contain one to several cotyledons.
iii) They bear naked
iv) Ovules are sessile.
v) Fruits never formed.