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 Comprehension Check page 45

QUESTION.3: Who is an artisan? Why do you think the thumbs of expert artisans were chopped off?

Answer: An artisan is a skilled person to the utmost in a specific sector of applied art and makes items that may be functional or strictly decorative.
The artisans of India had been world-famous for their excellent craftsmanship and were revered by all. Out of envy and worry of losing their expected monetary income through the imported goods, the British ascertained their profit by cutting the thumbs of the artisans. This reflects the cruel and greedy British merchants who knew no humanity.
Working with the Text (page 45)

QUESTION.1: Do you think the Indian princes were short-sighted in their approach to the events of 1757?

Answer: Indeed, the kings and the rulers of India had been short-sighted. They were myopic and devoid of far-seeing ability. They were narrow-minded and thought of protecting their own fiefdom. They never thought of unity nationhood and to put restraints against the outside forces. To protect their self-interest, they had become the toys in the hands of the British.

QUESTION.2: How did the East India Company subdue the Indian princes?

Answer: Lacuna in unity had been the prime reason for the demise of Indian rulers and their kingdoms. They were busy in internal fights which enabled the British to apply ‘divide and rule’ policy. Besides, the British applied ‘Doctrine of Lapse’, ‘Subsidiary Alliances’ to usurp the Indian territories.

QUESTION.3: Quote the words used by Rammohan Roy to say that every religion teaches the same principles?

Answer:  Ram Mohan Roy aptly understood the essence of God. To enumerate the idea he presented the example of a cow. Irrespective of the colours of the cows, the milk is the same white. Likewise, different religion may appear different in their look, but the essence

QUESTION.4: In what ways did the British officers exploit Indians?

Answer: The British had put a high tax on the farmers and removed the import duty on the British goods which destroyed the Indians economically and benefitted the British to the utmost. Indian artisans got destroyed because of this impurity. Indian soldiers were paid meagre and the British soldiers were paid high with other facilities. They never respected the religious beliefs and cultures of Indians and deprived   Indians by providing the education of a clerk.

QUESTION.5: Name these people.

(i)            The ruler who fought pitched battles against the British and died fighting.

Answer: Of all the Indian Kings who put restraints against the British and had pitched battles was Tipu Sultan.

(ii)           The person who wanted to reform society.

Answer: The pioneer of modern India and begetter of the reformation of Indian Society was Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

(iii)          The person who recommended the introduction of English education in India.

Answer: The destroyer of the education of India and turning Indians into mere clerks was Lord Macaulay.

(iv)          The popular leaders who led the revolt.

                    Answer: The first battle of Independence was led by Rani Laxmi Bai, Kunwar Singh, Tatya Tope, Nana Saheb etc.

QUESTION.6: Mention the following.

(i)            Two examples of social practices prevailing then.

Answer: During the British Period Indian Society was diseased with a lot of evil social practices. Of them Sati and untouchability were prime.

(ii)           Two oppressive policies of the British

1)      The British decided to uplift their industry. To meet the target they had removed import duty on their goods and had imposed high taxes on Indian goods. This policy destroyed the Indians economically.
2)       The British passed a resolution. In this, the British could put anyone to jail without any trial for as many days they wanted.
(iii)          Two ways in which common people suffered.

Answer: 1) The British considered Indians equal to dogs and never revered the religious beliefs of the Indians.
                               2)  To ensure the destruction of Indian Artisan industry the British had cut the thumbs of the Indian artisans.

(iv)          Four reasons for the discontent that led to the 1857 war of independence.

1)      Different British policies snatched away the kingdoms the Indian kings.
2)      The British were given higher salaries to Indian soldiers and Indian Soldiers never had any better promotion.
3)      The Santhals felt that they were created by the British as their land was now captured by the British.
4)      The resolution which started to put Indians into jail without any trial to the court created discontentment among the Indians.